What should be paid attention to during the etching process?
Interpretation: Etching is the removal of material by chemical reaction or physical impact.
Etching techniques can be divided into wet etching and dry etching.
Etching is usually called photochemical etching. It refers to the place where the photochemically etched area is to be protected after photolithography or development. During etching, the chemical solution is exposed to dissolve the corrosion and obtain the effect of unevenness and hollow shape. It was originally used to make printed embossed plates, such as copper and zinc plates, and was also widely used for weight-reducing instrument panels, well-known brands, and thin workpieces that were difficult to process by traditional processing methods. After continuous improvement and development of process equipment, it can also be used for the processing of precision etching products of electronic chip parts in the aviation, machinery, chemical industry, especially in the semiconductor manufacturing process, etching is an indispensable technology.
Issues to be noted when etching:
- Reduce side corrosion and protrusions, improve the etching coefficient
Generally, the longer the printed board is in the etching solution, the more severe the side corrosion. As the side corrosion and edges decrease, the etch coefficient increases. A high etch factor indicates the ability to maintain thin lines, so that the etched lines are close to the original size. Excessive mutations can cause the conductor to short-circuit. Because the protruding edges are easily broken, a bridge is formed between two points of the wire.
- Improve the consistency of etching rate between boards
In continuous plate etching, the more uniform the etching rate, the more uniform the plate etching. In order to meet this requirement, the etching solution must be kept in the optimal etching state during the entire etching process. This requires selecting an etching solution that is easy to regenerate and compensate, and the etching rate is easy to control. Choose processes and equipment that can provide constant operating conditions and automatically control various solution parameters. This is achieved by controlling the amount of dissolved copper, pH, solution concentration, temperature, uniformity of solution flow (spray system or nozzle and nozzle swing), etc.
- Improve the uniformity of the etching rate of the entire board surface
The etching uniformity of the upper and lower surfaces of the substrate and the various parts on the substrate surface depends on the uniformity of the etchant flow on the substrate surface. During the etching process, the etching rate of the upper and lower plates is often inconsistent. Generally speaking, the etching rate of the lower plate is higher than that of the upper plate. Due to the accumulation of the solution on the upper plate, the etching reaction is weakened. The uneven etching of the upper and lower plates can be solved by adjusting the pressure of the upper and lower nozzles. A common problem with etching printed circuit boards is that it is difficult to clean all surfaces at the same time. The edge of the board is etched faster than the center. Using a spray system and swinging the nozzle is an effective measure. By making the jet pressures at the center and edge of the board different, the intermittent etching methods on the front and back of the board are different to achieve uniform etching across the board, further improvements can be achieved.
- The problem of reducing pollution
Copper pollution of water is a common problem in the production of printed circuits. Because copper and ammonia complex, it is not easy to remove by ion exchange or alkali precipitation. Therefore, the second spraying operation is used to rinse the circuit board with copper-free additives, thereby greatly reducing copper emissions. Then, before rinsing with water, use an air knife to remove excess solution from the surface of the board, thereby reducing the amount of water for rinsing copper and etching salt.
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